Becoming a Critical ThinkerBecoming a Critical Thinker
A Guide for the New Millennium

by Robert Todd Carroll
ISBN 0 - 536 - 60060 - 0

from the publisher Pearson Custom Publishing
or from

last updated March 15, 2008

Addenda and Corrections

note: corrections are in red

Chapter 1. Critical Thinking

p.2, last line in penultimate paragraph: Plato (427-347 BCE)

p. 23, Question 27: Communal reinforcement is support given to a community for its unpopular views.

Chapter 2. Language and Critical Thinking

p. 29, line 9-10: ...See page 218 for answers....

Chapter 3. Sources

p. 72, line 10: report that Kathy Lee Gifford's Wal-Mart clothing line is made by child laborers making pennies a day

p.   79, line 1: 32. An example of managing the news was the way President George Bush and candidate Bill Clinton used local television stations to get out their views on the issues.

Chapter 7. Sampling

p. 153,  line 4: ..."Which position do you believe the Democrats...."

Chapter 8. Analogical and Causal Reasoning

p. 168,  line 17: ..."Congress shall make no law...."


2nd edition corrections and additions

p.3, line 4: Plato (427-347 BCE)

p. 18, last paragraph, 5th line: These people are

p. 34, line 1 of 3rd new paragraph: When is a steel nut....

p. 39, sec. 3.2, line 1 or 7th paragraph: ...lasts up to 20 percent longer."

p. 45, first line of last paragraph of section 5: To define science.....

p. 68, line 21: In addition, the Sinclair Broadcast Group controls more television stations (62) in the U.S. than anyone outside the major networks. Sinclair Broadcast Group reaches about one-fourth of U.S. households. Like Fox Broadcasting, it uses its power to promote a conservative political agenda in its news department. For example, in April of 2004 it ordered its seven ABC stations not to broadcast "Nightline" because it planned to broadcast the names and photographs of the more than 500 U.S. troops that had been killed in the Iraq war. The Sinclair Group said it thought the program was trying to undermine the war effort. Shortly before the 2004 presidential election, Sinclair ordered its stations to show an anti-John Kerry film. It offered Kerry time to respond after the film aired, but it was not required by law to do so. In 2000, the “personal attack” law, which gave politicians the right to respond to television attacks on their honesty or integrity, was abolished. The “fairness doctrine,” which was adopted by the Federal Trade Commission in 1949 out of concern that stations would use their power to advocate single perspectives, was abolished in 1987 by the Reagan administration.

Sinclair fired its Washington bureau chief because he publicly criticized the company for ordering the anti-Kerry film to be shown. Sinclair relented when shareholders, concerned that the value of their stock would diminish, challenged the plan to air the program. Sinclair announced that only parts of the anti-Kerry program would be shown during a program that would examine the use of documentaries such as Michael Moore's "Fahrenheit 9/11" and "Celsius 41.11" to influence elections. Michael Moore’s attempt to have his anti-Bush film “Fahrenheit 9/11” shown on pay-per-view cable TV the night before the 2004 election added fuel to the speculation that eventually media politics will abandon all pretense at being fair or balanced and will degenerate into a propaganda war by competing political viewpoints (“Politics and TV: An explosive mix?” J. Freedom du Lac, Sacramento Bee, Oct. 17, 2004, p. 1.) The producers of "Celsius 41.11," a pro-Bush film aimed at refuting many of the claims made in Moore's film, scheduled its release for shortly before the 2004 presidential election.

p. 137 American Civil Liberties Union argument against the death penalty is at

p. 137. 6. In support of Against Animal Experimentation:

See the AAAS Resolution: In Support of Animal Experimentation for an argument in support:

p. 228 (The diagram is incorrect. Statement 7 supports statement 6, not statement 4. )

p. 231, answers to exercise 7-1, numbers 1 and 7: the answers should be true for both statements.

p. 234, answers to exercise 9-1: number 24 is false.

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